The first political condition for the refoundation of the EU, says Balibar, is that the peoples of the EU have a material interest in it. For us who think that historical materialism has a great point,— the point that the material conditions of the peoples are, in the last instance, decisive— this sounds very true indeed. And this truth implies another great point: history is in reality made by masses of people who, in the end, are guided by their material interest.

Yet the role of science-based technology in the human history has proved as fundamental as the material interest. Or even more fundamental, because of the Doomsday Machine. I suppose that a majority of the reading public, and even of those who not read that much, are aware of this existential threat to their own survival: The Doomsday Machine. The most detailed and chilling account of the Doomsday Machine that I know of is Daniel Ellsberg's book with that very title.(1)

But is not survival—the survival of each and everyone—then also a material interest?

"Erst kommt das Fressen, dann kommt die Moral" (Brecht). True, but even before the eating comes the disarmament. Let economists, like Keynes, believe that this may be so "in the long run" (when we are all dead anayway), but not right now. No, the disarming and the deconstruction of the Doomsday Machine is a very fundamental part of the present material interest. . It is the top of an enormous economical iceberg, the part of the real economy that is wasted in the war industries, the ongoing arms race, the armies, navies, military air and space forces, and the actual wars.

Economists believe that it is possible to "save the EU from itself", by fiscal policy. (2) It is not. It is necessary to take on the military-industrial-academic complex, because this is in the material interest of the peoples!

To what extent is the ecological crisis, and the climate crisis, in particular, a result of "the war economy" (Seymour Melman) ? Dear economists, could you please try calculate it?

Can the ecological crisis be solved without the conversion of the military machines to green production?

Can the democracy be enlarged in the nuclear state? How much of the democracy can even co-exist with the Doomsday Machine?

(1) Ellsberg, D. : The Doomsday Machine: Confessions of a Nuclear War Planner (2017). Edward Snowden tweeted about this book: "As we flirt with nuclear war for the first time in decades, @DanielEllsberg releases perhaps the most authoritative work ever produced on the subject (he helped write the plans!). "

_(2)_ See